By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot
Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:
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Additional resources for A History of Egypt: From the Arab Conquest to the Present
None lasted for very long for they were soon overthrown by their colleagues. In 1294 a terrible plague swept the country and was associated with the ruler then on the throne. Some Egyptians saw it as an act of divine retribution, for while the country suffered famine the mamluk amir, who was of Mongol origin, had allowed a whole Mongol tribe to immigrate into Egypt and share the scarce supplies of the country when they were not even Muslims. Eventually his amirs conspired against him out of fear of his partiality for the Mongols.
Industry and commerce also waned for lack of manpower. The two leading industries in Cairo, sugar making and paper making, diminished, while textile workers, who were said to have numbered 14,000 in 1394, shrank to 800 in 1434, or so the historians of the day inform us. Even if the first figure were exaggerated, the second figure is pretty telling as to the industrial condition of the country. At first the mamluks resorted to taxing the urban communities the age of the mamluks 39 more rapaciously than hitherto, which led to political turmoil and unrest among the mamluks themselves and between them and the population in general.
That victory ushered in a period of armed truce that lasted for seventeen years. Following Baibars’s policies, Qalawun kept an efficient army of strictly disciplined mamluks numbering twelve thousand men. The heads of regiments were referred to as amirs or beys. Though stern and strict, Qalawun was also benevolent towards his subjects. He built the first hospital in Egypt in a complex that included his tomb mosque, a school and a library; both the tomb mosque and the hospital are still in use today.
A History of Egypt: From the Arab Conquest to the Present by Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot