By Alan Campbell Wares
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Additional info for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism
The palatalized lateral /P/ occurs initially in li>akwák 'bitter', lyahkwák 'to look for' ; medially in malvhó 'pipe', haletât 'spider' ; finally in hani'úlv 'ashes', ipály 'tongue'. The flap /r/, which "is a rare sound initially", according to Kroeber, occurs initially in my data only in ráp havík 'ten', ráp havík 'séti 'eleven', etc. In this case, ráp is evidently a contraction of Qaráp 'five', since havík is 'two'. The phoneme /r/ occurs medially in marik 'bean', hirâvk 'pain'; finally in hukQár 'fox', ciyér 'bird'.
On the other hand, it may be problematical in cases where a number of distinct sets of correspondences are observed, as is the case with the liquids in the Yuman languages. In the following pages, the evidence for each of the phonemes of PYu will be presented and discussed, beginning with the stops of the consonant system and proceding through the chart of phonemes as presented in previous chapters. The following set of correspondences, with the cognate sets that attest it (the figures in parentheses following the set refer to the entries in the comparative vocabulary in Chapter XIV), point to a voiceless bilabial stop in PYu : (1) NYu ρ : Mo ρ : Ma ρ : Yu ρ : Co ρ : D ρ : Τ ρ : Ρ ρ : Κ ρ (2, 6, 10, 21, 22, 26, 27, 29, 47, 52, 55, 59, 61, 62, 68, 75, 80, 100, 116, 118, 130, 137, 138, 155, 157, 168,170, 176, 179, 180, 181, 200,201, 210, 218, 229, 236, 241, 244, 247, 256, 271, 277, 296, 297,298, 299, 301, 331, 336, 349, 353, 367, 368, 386, 400, 409, 422, 423, 432, 457, 462, 475, 476, 489).
Pitch does not appear to be significant. IX. THE PHONEMES O F TIPAI The segmental phonemes of Tipai are : Consonants : ρ m Semiconsonants : Vowels : t s η 1 1 r t c s ny ly k χ kw xw w u o y i e a The series of stops in Tipai is the same as that in Cocopa. In final position, /c/ has a palatalized release [t*], but elsewhere it is affricated. The phonemicity of the glottal stop/' / is shown by the contrast sók 'to clean', s'ók 'crooked'. 'cloud', kwá 'horn', sukwinv 'pot, jar'; / ' / >â 'mouth', 'œk 'bone', V i i 'owl', a'nák 'seat'.
A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares